Apply These Secret WAYS TO Improve Pregnancy Loss And Chromosome Testing For Miscarriages

Although most couples are blissfully unaware of the statistics surrounding miscarriage, pregnancy loss is in fact quite common, with 10-25% of recognized pregnancies ending in miscarriage. If you have suffered a pregnancy loss or are in the process of having a miscarriage, you may be wondering what caused losing and worry about whether it will happen again. This short article aims to answer the following questions:

What causes miscarriage?
How common is pregnancy loss?
What type of genetic testing is available for miscarriage tissue?
infant loss How can chromosome testing help?
Causes of Miscarriage

There are many different reasons why miscarriage occurs, but the most typical cause for first trimester miscarriage is a chromosome abnormality. Chromosome abnormalities – extra or missing whole chromosomes, also known as “aneuploidy” – occur due to a mis-division of the chromosomes in the egg or sperm involved with a conception. Typically, humans have 46 chromosomes which come in 23 pairs (22 pairs numbered from 1 to 22 and the sex chromosomes, X and Y). For a child to develop normally it is important that it have the right quantity of chromosome material; missing or extra material during conception or in an embryo or fetus can cause a woman to either not get pregnant, miscarry, or have a child with a chromosome syndrome such as for example Down syndrome.

Over 50% of most first trimester miscarriages are due to chromosome abnormalities. This number may be closer to 75% or higher for women aged 35 years and over who’ve experienced recurrent pregnancy loss. Overall, the rate of chromosome abnormalities and the rate of miscarriage both increase with maternal age, with a steep increase in women older than 35.

Pregnancy Loss – How Common is it?

Miscarriage is far more common than most people think. Up to one in every four recognized pregnancies is lost in first trimester miscarriage. The chance of having a miscarriage also increases as a mother gets older.

Nearly all women who experience a miscarriage go on to have a healthy pregnancy and never miscarry again. However, some women appear to be more prone to miscarriage than others. About five percent of fertile couples will experience several miscarriages.

Of note, the rate of miscarriage is apparently increasing. One reason for this may be awareness – more women know they’re having a miscarriage because home pregnancy tests have improved early pregnancy detection rates over the past decade, whereas previously the miscarriage would have appeared to be just a unique period. Another reason could be that more women are conceiving at older ages.

Types of Genetic Testing Helpful for Miscarriages

Genetic testing actually identifies many different types of testing that you can do on the DNA in a cell. For miscarriage tissue, also known as products of conception (POC), probably the most useful type of test to execute is a chromosome analysis. A chromosome analysis (also known as chromosome testing) can examine all 23 pairs of chromosomes for the presence of extra or missing chromosome material (aneuploidy). Because so many miscarriages are caused by aneuploidy, chromosome analysis on the miscarriage tissue can often identify the reason behind the pregnancy loss.

The most common approach to chromosome analysis is named karyotyping. Newer methods include advanced technologies such as for example microarrays.

Karyotyping analyzes all 23 pairs of chromosome but requires cells from the miscarriage tissue to first be grown in the laboratory, a process called “cell culture”. Because of this requirement, tissue that’s passed at home is frequently unable to be tested with this particular method. About 20% or more of miscarriage samples fail to grow and thus no email address details are available. Additionally, karyotyping struggles to tell the difference between cells from mom (maternal cells) and cells from the fetus. In case a normal female result is found, it may be the right result for the fetus or it can be maternal cell contamination (MCC) where the result actually comes from testing the mother’s cells present in the pregnancy tissue instead of the fetal cells. MCC seems to occur in about 30% or even more of the samples tested by traditional karyotype. Results from karyotyping usually take a few weeks to months another from the laboratory.

Microarray testing is a new type of genetic testing done on miscarriage samples; both most common forms of microarray testing are array CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) and chromosome SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) microarray. Microarray testing is also able to test all 23 pairs of chromosomes for aneuploidy, but does not require cell culture. Therefore, you are more prone to receive results and the results are usually returned faster when microarray testing can be used. Additionally, some laboratories are collecting a sample of the mother’s blood concurrently the miscarriage tissue is sent to enable immediate detection of maternal cell contamination (MCC).

Chromosome Testing – How do it help?

In case a chromosome abnormality is identified, the type of abnormality found can be assessed to help answer the question: “Will this eventually me again?”. Usually, chromosome abnormalities within an embryo or fetus aren’t inherited and have a low possiblity to occur in future pregnancies. Sometimes, a particular chromosome finding in a miscarriage alerts your physician to do further studies to investigate the possibility of an underlying genetic or chromosome problem in your family that predisposes you to have miscarriages.

Furthermore, if a chromosome abnormality is identified it could prevent the dependence on other, sometimes quite costly, studies your doctor might consider to investigate the reason for the miscarriage.

Lastly, knowing the explanation for a pregnancy loss might help a couple start the emotional healing process, moving at night question of “Why did this happen to me?”.

Chromosome testing could be especially very important to patients with repeated miscarriages, as it can either give clues to an underlying chromosomal cause for the miscarriages or eliminate chromosome errors as the reason behind the miscarriages and allow their doctor to pursue other types of testing. For couples with multiple miscarriages determined to truly have a chromosomal cause, in vitro fertilization (IVF) with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) testing may be able to help increase their likelihood of having a successful healthy pregnancy.

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